Sunday, December 5, 2010

Blog #37 - Which of the six philosophers best fits your personal views?

In the article, "Philosophy 101," we surveyed five major philosophers and came up with some modern-day applications / examples of their ideas.  What you should do with this blog is review their ideas and pick which one best suits your own personal outlook on life or views about the world.

I. Ancient Greece
  A. Plato - he believed in the idea of the perfect form, that there is a perfect concept for everything (person, horse, chair, etc.) and that everything manmade or natural on Earth is an imperfect copy of that perfect form (In the picture to the left, you have a photo of a chair, a definition of a chair printed out, and an actual chair - each one is a chair but they each have different degrees of reality to them - the farther away from the ideal form they are, the less perfect they are).
 - Plato felt that achieving this perfection would be impossible but it would be important to live a good life by striving for perfection. 

  B. Aristotle - Some of his ideas included deductive reasoning (that we might see in cop/mystery movies or forensics TV shows), the Golden Mean (choosing between two extremes), and the feelings of catharsis or an emotional cleansing.  Aristotle was also one of the first true scientists of the ancient era who had the means to study and catalogue numerous plants and animals. 
  - With the Golden Mean, Aristotle might feel today that a balance should be struck somewhere between being totally in touch with one's friends through social networking and cutting one's self off completely.   
  - Here's an interesting website about a concept called the Overton Window - the points along the scale (if you mapped out the spots between one extreme and another) at which the public is willing to accept an option. 

II. Modern Philosophy
  C. Rene Descartes - He is the father of modern philosophy and started many snowballs rolling downhill, but the one we focused on here was the idea of dualism, the mind and body are separate and not linked. An example the article gave was that if you died in a dream, you wouldn't die in actuality.  Movies like The Matrix and Inception deal fully with this mind / body dualism.   Descartes is also known for the statement "I think, therefore I am" in which in order to exist, you must first think.  Quite a concept! (See link for a further elaboration on different types of dualism).

  D. David Hume - This Scottish philosopher improved upon some of Descares' ideas like skepticism (that we cannot truly ever be sure of something b/c it might not reoccur - the article uses the example of a bottle breaking when knocked off of a table).  Part of the reason that this type of skepticism exists is b/c of the randomness of life and the infinite number of variables that play into it (later to be called the chaos theory in Jurassic Park or the butterfly effect).  Lastly, there's the post hoc fallacy, or to believe that because we see two things occur together, one must have caused the other.  Let us say that one morning I get up and turn my coffee machine on, but at the same time, the dishwasher starts up.  Does that mean that X (turning coffee machine on) causes Y (dishwasher turns on)?  No, not necessarily. 

  E. Immanuel Kant - One of his biggest ideas was the categorical imperative, or in other words, putting yourself to a moral test for each of your actions.  You should consider what would happen if everyone followed your course of actions and how that would impact society.  Applying this standard to all of your actions would be the key to living a righteous life. 
 - Also, perception matters, and it differs for everyone.  We can never fully perceive what we perceive b/c we are not that object which we perceive. 

  F. Georg Hegel - Hegel had an idea that had been around for awhile but he refined it to something called absolute spirit - a network that connected every thing to ideas, people and other things around the universe.  Hegel also came up with an idea called zeitgeist (German for time-spirit) where peoples' thoughts are guided by the political and cultural atmosphere of a specific time in history.  For instance, our time period represented the angry Populist revolt of the Tea Party.

Your job: pick which of these six best fits your own personal philosophy at the beginning of our class.  Explain why.  You may find that your ideas come from a couple different guys, so include that. 

200 words minimum.  Due Thursday, December 9 before class begins.

23 comments:

  1. I can most identify with the philosopher Aristotle. The idea of deductive reasoning is important in my life. I use deductive reasoning virtually every day in order to solve problems both at school in my education and in my own life. The use of deductive reasoning helps me make important life decisions that otherwise would be uninformed, and likely the wrong choice. For example, when deciding which classes I should schedule myself to take I consider the fact that I need to stay focused and take classes that will help me succeed in life, while also leaving room for classes that let me relax a little. Using deductive reasoning I sort out the classes that are too hard as well as the classes that are complete "blow offs". The result is a list of classes that help me develop as a person both socially and intellectually. This example also ties in with Aristotle's belief in the golden mean. He believed that we must act without being too extreme towards one side of a spectrum. In my life I try to study hard and focus on learning, while also taking time to relax and enjoy my youth. Instead of taking 5 AP classes or 5 sports classes I take an equal balance of extracurriculars and core classes so that I can stay in touch with friends and continue to learn at an appropriate level.
    I also identify with Hume's post hoc fallacy, as I am superstitious about what helps me succeed as a baseball player. I used to play with my pant legs up so that I had "high socks". Additionally, I believe that Hegel's idea of zeitgeist likely has some effect on my life. I am affected by ideas that are unique to our time. I, like many others, use facebook and texting in order to communicate, rather than using a phone like the last generation, or writing letters like the generations before that.

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  2. I think that I am like Aristotle. When I am problem-solving, I tend to think very critically and think like a scientist. I am very good at sorting out important details and using them to find a logical conclusion, just like Aristotle would have. Aristotle created the idea of the Golden Mean, which is basically finding a balance between the two extremes of a situation. I deal with the Golden Mean in my day to day life, trying to find balance in my schedule. I try to study for a good amount everyday, but I also try to get out and hang out with friends and be active. It can be tough to do this, but it is very important to find a balance in your life. Now, while I agree with the idea of catharsis, I do not feel as if I have had a true “cathartic” moment. On the whole, I feel that I identify the most with Aristotle because of his stand on deductive reasoning and the Golden Mean.

    Tyler Porritt 3rd Hour

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  3. My personal philosophy relates best to that of David Hume’s. His idea of skepticism is very similar to how I think about certain situations. His thought was that just because something happens over and over and over again, producing the same outcome every time, there is still a possibility that if you just keep on going, minus all variables, the outcome would differ from all the times before hand, or differ from the outcome you had expected. Hume said that you could never be sure of anything because of a thing called the chaos theory. The chaos theory states that there are too many variables out there in order to be certain of anything. Although I agree with his idea of skepticism and also the chaos theory, I find myself doubting the post hoc fallacy. He said that the post hoc fallacy is the relation of one thing to another in a sense that if they both occur at the same time then it MUST mean that due to that one thing occurring, it caused the next outcome and if you hadn’t done those things together, then you wouldn’t have the same outcome. To me this just screams superstitions, which I don’t really take seriously so that’s most likely why I don’t really believe the post hoc fallacy.

    3rd hour
    Natalie Hords

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  4. I can relate to different facets of all of the philosophers. One that particularly stood out to me was that of Immanuel Kant and his ideas about perception. I believe that how I view the world is completely different that how anybody else views the world because my perception is different. Even people of the same beliefs and lifestyle will have a different perception of life. Another philosopher that I can identify with is Descartes and the mind-body separation. I know what it's like to have conflict between the instincts of the body and the rationale of the mind. I also like the idea of "I think, therefore I am." People go through life all the time and live and die unnoticed. They think and "exist," but in the grand scheme of the world, they mean nothing. However, those who have made history, such as out founding fathers, Albert Einstein, Copernicus, truly made a difference in our world. Their ideas were the reason they were not just another person passing through life. They truly "existed" because of their intellectual contribution to society. I can also relate to Plato and his ideas about striving for perfection. I try to act according to my morals, but I often fail.

    Gretchen Geist 3rd Hour

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  5. I believe that I am both like Plato and Aristotle. Plato believes that there are perfect things out there but we can never be as perfect as the natural things. I also believe that people cannot be perfect but that doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t try to aspire to be the greatest we can be. If we all knew we couldn’t be perfect and thusly decided to just give up much of the population would probably commit suicide or just turn into bums, cause what’s the point? The point is to make the world a better place and one way of doing that is to be the best you can be. I believe that I am also like Aristotle because he believes in deductive reasoning. I also believe in this strongly and through this I go out my daily life questioning things that others wouldn’t. I have a belief in God but I still love to challenge my own faith by asking those hard questions and trying to get the answers any way I can. There are other philosophers that I could pick and choose ideals from but these two support some main themes of my life.

    Ryan St. John

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  6. While learning about the philosophers I find that I can relate to more than one of them. The first philosopher whose ideas I can relate to is Hume’s theory of skepticism is very relatable to me and the way that I approach situations in life. I believe that just because something happens more than once the chances of it happening again, though high, can still be disproved. Another Philosopher that I believe in is Kant and his ideas of perception. I know the way that I see a specific situation varies greatly from the way that others see the same situation because we both have different perceptions. Where I may see the glass being half full others see it as being half empty. It’s all about perception. Another theory that I agree with is Plato’s theory of perfection. I personally feel like perfection is unattainable but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try your best in every situation life throws at you. The last philosopher that I think relates to my life is Descartes and his theory of dualism. After thinking about it for awhile I do believe that the mind and body are separate, but in a different sort of way. I believe that the mind is separate from the body, like how you can’t die in a dream, but I also believe that without your mind your body couldn’t be, but without a body your mind would have nothing to inhibit.

    Jaimmie Koss
    3rd hour

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  7. I personally can most identify with Aristotle. The idea of golden mean which is balancing between two extremes plays into many lives including mine. I have to really organize my day in order to get everything in. Half my day goes to school after school I try to balance between homework, studying, athletics and my social life. Certain times everything does not fit and I end up cutting something off. When I cut something off I have to prioritize which is important and what is not. Another one of his ideas were deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is taking what you know is true and what you do not know and making a conclusion. I think that it can be useful when you have a lot of facts or prior knowledge to work from, but It is useless if a person does not have prior knowledge or a lot of facts. When it comes to problem solving I organize what I know and what I should be looking for. That is how deductive reasoning plays a role in my life. Aristotle also has other ideas such as catharsis, which is emotional cleansing. One example is when an individual reads a sad book he or she may feel better about their lives. I do not have enough knowledge about this idea but I do agree with the golden mean and deductive reasoning.

    hour 3
    mariam sharaf

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  8. I would say that I relate to Immanuel Kant the most. His theory makes me think of fate and free will. He believes that if you follow the right path, with the correct emotions and actions, then you will pass your test.
    I believe in fate because in everything that you do, something will happen from that action. This relates to Kant because he wants people to do what they believe they are destined to do, and I totally stand behind that. For example, I always thought I was going to be an artist, so I started taking a lot of art classes and started taking classes at colleges and I applied to many different art colleges in Michigan and Chicago. Then one day, I went to a National Portfolio Day at an art school where colleges look at my artwork and they consider if they want me at their school. As I was looking around, I noticed how much more amazing the other high school student's work was. I thought my fate was to become a successful artist, but after that one day I made a 180-degree turn. Now I am going to a non-art college, not going to major in art, and starting a new destiny.

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  9. I feel that I am most connected to Aristotle and Descartes. I feel their ideas go hand in hand, with Aristotle’s theory of deductive reasoning, and Descartes’ dualism. My thinking is that every Minuit of every day, human beings around the world are making some sort of choice made by some sort of deductive reasoning. It is an undeniable fact that they will have used some sort of deductive reason to get their choice, whether they reason consciously or subconsciously, which brings me to Descartes dualism. Dualism is the idea that our physical body is not connected to our mind and without our mind we cannot reason or think, which is like Descartes saying of "I think, therefore I am," as you explained. To reason human beings must think, and by thinking humans exist, and I’m really pretty sure that I do exist as a human being. Another concept of Aristotle’s is golden mean which as you explained, is the idea of finding the perfect middle of being social and cutting yourself off. This is a theory that I strongly believe in, because I try to be social and hangout with my friends when it’s appropriate, but when the time comes to buckle down and start my homework and studies.

    Jared Monchnik 3rd hr

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  10. Of the philosophers we have studied thus far, I think that Aristotle best suits my personal outlook. I particularly like his idea of the golden mean because it is an Idea that I can apply to my own life. Having a balanced life is just as important today as it was in his time. Many philosophers took positions on one extreme or the other while Aristotle proposed that a golden mean could provide the best of both worlds. I also like Aristotle’s work in various scientific fields. He was one of the first true scientists of the ancient era who studied and catalogued numerous plants and animals. In addition to these I also like his belief in deductive reasoning in which he used logic and cunning to solve simple problems. These things separate Aristotle from the other great philosophers of his time, and that is why his ideas are still studied today. Although all of the ancient philosophers had very meaningful ideas and beliefs, I think that Aristotle’s are the most relevant today. Not only are his ideas very relevant today but I am sure they will still be relevant in a hundred years from now and centuries beyond that.

    Andrew Gordner

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  11. I believe my personal philosophy is greatly influenced by the ideas of Aristotle. Aristotle’s first idea about deductive reasoning is defiantly a procedure that I include for both my schoolwork and outside life. I believe it allows me to make a contentious decision, with eliminating all the paths that most likely would lead to the wrong answer. For example, last year when I took Physics, most of our homework consisted of large story problems with many variables. Although, after realizing the purpose of the question, I was able to rule out multiple variables that were not necessary. Subsequently, it led me to solve the problem with the correct and coherent variables. On another note, my life is primarily focused on his idea of “golden mean”. With being involved in 2 sports, having a pretty hard course load, and the ambition to go to a great university, I have had to learn how to prioritize and make good decisions. For example, on weekends where most of my time is consumed by a running invitational, I have had to the make decision on whether I want to go out and hang with friends or do my homework later. Rather than taking the extremes of either, I decide to get a jump on my homework and then go hang with my friends for a couple of hours.

    Dylan Reiners Hour: 3rd

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  12. Allison Smart
    3rd hour

    When I look at all of these philosophers it is hard to say that I can totally relate to any of them. I would like to think that I fall into some category somewhere but I didn’t really think anyone of them were right on. But, with some of them I did agree to some aspects of their thinking. I think that I agree the most closely with Plato even though I don’t agree with everything he believes. I do think that everyone should strive for perfection and that is a good goal to keep in mind when doing anything and everything. I don’t agree that there is Perfect Form. There is nothing that is truly perfect on earth and it can’t be achieved. The other philosopher that I related to the most closely was Aristotle. I think that his idea of the Golden Mean was pretty good. I think everyone has a choice and that the world today does affect their decision. You need to choose what is the most important in your life even if the world doesn’t follow that decision. I seem to do that a lot in that most of my decisions are different from my peers. Also his idea of deductive reasoning was pretty good in that we can use our own reasoning to come to a further conclusion about a different topic that is closely related.

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  13. I believe in a blend of ideas from 2 philosophers; Hegel and Descartes. I agree with his ideas that our decisions and actions are guided by cultural and political influences. It makes sense that different regions would have different beliefs and social customs, because of their unique political atmospheres. People always seem to try and rebel; go against the party in power so they always have something to fight for. It explains why people wanted a liberal president after Bush was in power and why the Tea Party has become so prevalent now. Also, he believed in compromise, that two clashing ideas would produce a middle solution, which would clash with something else and so on. This happens with almost everything in life, especially in politics. (health care bill) Then there's Descartes, who believed in dualism. I agree with this intriguing idea to a certain extent, the part in which your mind has a separate dream world in which the physical restrictions of your body don't apply, on the other hand, in the real world there are limitations on the mind. However; i think the soul has some connection to the bosy, as it can influence your everyday choices and actions. Both Hegel and Descartes had interesting concepts that I think apply to me.

    Alice Turner 3rd hour

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  14. From reviewing all six philosophers’ views and ideas on certain issues, I can relate to all of them in a certain way, but the philosopher I connect with the most has to be Immanuel Kant. Immanuel Kant went on record saying “God does not simply will that we should be happy, but rather that we should make ourselves happy” which discusses the moral decision of, should everybody chose your actions? Every single person has a completely different perception on certain topics and issues, even those people of similar faiths, cultures, etc. In my opinion, perception is everything. For example, if I see a basketball player shooting baskets with an imperfect form, like a low release point, but he makes the majority of his shots, my perception is that properly defended, that form will be highly ineffective. Juxtaposed to my perception, another person’s perception could be that because the majority of shots were made unguarded, being properly defended, that player could make a majority of his shots. Now, if everyone has a different perception, then why would one person want another person choosing all of their actions? One person’s right is another person’s wrong. Going off of my opinion that perception is everything, people may think perfection is possible, but my perception of perfection is that it is almost impossible to achieve. With that being said, I can also relate to Plato and his idea of perfection is impossible, but it is still a good goal to strive for. Trying to receive a 36 on the ACT is a great goal to strive towards, but it is nearly impossible to achieve perfection. Last year in the United States, 1.5 million students took the ACT, and just one tenth of one percent of those students achieved perfection. That is 150 out of 1.5 million students, but how can we make sure that a perfect score really is a perfect score? Even with one question wrong, it is still possible to get a 36 as an overall score. So, with that now in mind, is perfection actually achieved with an overall score of 36? With Kant’s idea of perception, and Plato’s idea of how perfection is impossible, I connect with those guys because of how true and prominent those ideas are in everyone’s life today.

    Jake Stein
    3rd Hour

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  15. I honestly cannot completely identify myself with any of the given philosophers. I do not believe we are in Plato’s analogy of the cave. I believe we are in the real world, right here, right now; we just have to deal with it exactly how it is, and make the best of it. Make the best of it not only for ourselves, but for everyone we share this ‘real world’ with. As for Plato’s ‘aim for perfection’ idea, I can agree with that; it never hurts to aim high. I disagree with Hume’s idea of skepticism. One plus one will always equal two; there is no way for one plus one to ever equal three. If I toss a bucket of water into the air, it will rain back down. The chaos theory, in my opinion, may work if applied to areas strictly non-mathematical. If I instigate someone repeatedly, they may react in different ways. Also I think Hume’s Post Hoc Fallacy is a bunch of bull crap. Just because I dropped the spoon and my dog barked at the same time does NOT mean that one triggered the other. There’s a term in the dictionary called ‘coincidence’ that I believe in. I would LOVE to believe that we’re inside Plato’s cave and that there’s a better world out there waiting for us to wake up to; but I’m not going to waste my time looking for it if we’re already in the ‘real world’ and besides, what we have right now isn’t so bad, we just need to be optimistic :)

    Dustin Oakwood 3rd Hour

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  16. Out of all six of these philosophers the one that I can relate to the most with my own thinking is Kant, specifically with his ideas about perspective. The thought that everyone perceives things in different ways has always been something I questioned. I used to wonder if people saw colors differently, but we couldn’t tell if they did or not because we all see our blue as blue (if that makes any sense.) Another part of Kant’s philosophy on perspective also had to do with imagination. The article uses Calvin and Hobbs as its example of how adults see one thing but children, with their imaginations, see another. I have always thought about this. The best example I can think of is with aliens and “U.F.O” sightings. Maybe these people did see what they think they saw, but we have been brought up to think that those don’t exist so people think its just imagination. Although this is the opposite of the Calvin and Hobbs analogy since Calvin was imagining Hobbs, it still deals with the ways that we perceive things. Most people would have seen that U.F.O and thought that they were imagining it or that it was just an airplane and they didn’t have the greatest view of it. It’s interesting to think about how different people perceive things.
    Alex Grigorian

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  17. I agree with Aristotle’s concepts of deductive reasoning and golden mean. I use deductive reasoning every day. I use deductive reasoning when I don’t know the answer to a multiple choice question. I know it’s not these things so it must be a or b. When I have two tests to study for I chose which one to study first by weighing out which one I need to study the least. The Golden mean is a large thing in my life. I want to do well in school but I’m not going to study every minute of every day, that wouldn’t work so well. I also can’t spend endless hours on facebook. Balance is important, I like junk food but I need to eat healthy. I agree with Plato that there is an ideal version of me and I strive for it, but I probably will never quite get there, but the closer I get the happier I am with myself. This also relates to having a balanced life because to be perfect we would need to be on both sides on the mean at once and we can’t. By following the mean as well as possible we might get there.

    Natalie Douma

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  18. If I had to be one of these philosophers I would probably be most like Aristotle. The main concept that Aristotle believes in is the golden mean. In other words he believes that you must have some balance in your life. I feel like I try to follow the golden mean concept to the best of my ability, I might hang out with friends one time, study, play sports or I might stay home and be lazy. The other reason why I feel like I most relate with Aristotle is that I feel like I have or use deductive reasoning. When I am faced with a problem I want to get rid of outside factors that don’t affect what I’m trying to solve. Once I have gotten rid of outside factors I focus in on the specifics that will help me be able to solve the problem. These are the two main reasons in which I feel like I have many of the same beliefs and ideals as Aristotle.

    Matt Trogu
    3rd Hour

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  19. I find I relate best in a mesh of all of them. I usually find myself lost, not physically, but mentally. I don’t understand the things I do, good or bad. One day I’m a saint, the next I’m the devil. I can’t find myself in any specific community because of my wavering ways. Where I like to find myself is a community of free spirits. The one common trait between those of this community is we find ourselves having everything we could ever want, and at the same time we feel like we have nothing. We have lots of friends, but none at all. We find the world loves to seldom, but hates to often. We enjoy the joys of life and never take the miracle of life for granted. We have the ability to conform to any tendencies of modern society, but at the same time being a pure individual who refuses to conform to this modern day hypocrisy. We love to hate, and love to love. We’re consistently inconsistent. Our body language is poetic, but we refuse to rhyme. We learn from the mistakes of others, even though those mistakes are our own. It’s always found that the right choice is never right, and the wrong choice is never wrong. Living is in constant limbo and it seems we find ourselves watching the world go by, but the body we are in is not our own and we can only subconsciously be aware of our conscious actions. We have issues trusting our best friends, but we put all our faith in them regardless. The fine line between this and that is never actually fine. Our actions are spontaneously planned. In this community we find freedom in the irony of our everyday thoughts and actions. How you choose to take and apply these thoughts and ideals is under your sole discretion.

    -Evan Fried
    aka Jake Steins best friend

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  20. Out of the six philosophers we learned about I would have to say that I relate most to Aristotle and David Hume. Aristotle’s belief of the golden mean is relatable to me because I’m always trying to balance my time between so many activities in high school, everyone strives for the perfect medium but it isn’t always that easy to achieve. The most constant battle I have is trying to find the medium between studying and relaxing, I try my hardest to make studying and homework my number one priority but now that it is my senior year I usually find myself worrying about doing other things. I need to find the golden mean between the two so that I can stay on track and go to college, where I will have to reapply the process. The other philosopher I can relate to is David Hume and his beliefs. The whole thought that patterns don’t exist is intriguing, especially in the scientific world we live in today that believes in making patterns through observation. It is impossible to know anything with complete certainty; there are just too many variables that influence life everyday that can produce so many different outcomes. The fact that everything isn’t cause -> effect can be both depressing and hopeful, it can be depressing when you devote so much time to a project like practicing for football all week that it automatically doesn’t give you a win but it makes sense. But in harmful situations it can be hopeful, for instance getting in a car accident doesn’t automatically mean that you will die there are a lot of different outcomes that can occur which can make people live more actively instead of staying home worried about dying. Just because you see something occur one hundred times the same way this doesn’t mean the hundred and first way can’t be completely different.

    Austin Slawinski, 3rd

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  21. I completely agree with Aristotle when he speaks about the golden mean. It is very evident to me that an individual needs to work and have time to spend as they wish. If too much time is put towards either or, that person’s life becomes unbalanced and less satisfactory. The golden mean applies to all things, not just work and free time. A couple more examples I see everyday are the balance between studying and practicing, and strict and carefree. I believe Descartes to be incorrect when saying that the mind and its thoughts are not part of the body, but I find his words of cogito ergo sum so interesting (and true). If you ponder your existence, then of course you must exist, or how else would you be able to ponder it? The real question now is if something doesn’t think, does that mean it doesn’t exist? Well they apparently do; rocks, chairs, and window shades all have no thoughts…or maybe they just have no way of expressing them. When it comes down to making moral decisions, I follow in Kant’s footsteps. If I wanted to take an extra handful of candy at every door I went to as a child on Halloween, the night wouldn’t be changed too much and I wouldn’t feel bad at all. But if I thought that everyone was going to take that same course of action, all the candy would be gone so fast, and my night of fun would be cut very short.

    Andrew Sadler

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  22. Josh Cecile 3rd hourDecember 9, 2010 at 10:13 AM

    I personally think that David Hume fits my personal views best, because like him I also believe in skepticism, and the chaos theory. There are many, many variables that could change anything in our daily lives that could happen. I also believe that something random could happen that could change something that are completely different from each other. If I turn my computer on, the world isnt going to run out of electricity suddenly. I also agree with Aristotle's The Golden Rule, becuase people do need a balance, between activities that one does in their life. For example a student should find the balance bewteen hanging out with friends, and studying for school. Immanuel Kant also brings up a good point when he says that the way everyone percieves something is different. If i were to turn on my computer I personally would find it as a way of entertaining myself, while another would think that it's a waste of energy, and space.

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  23. I would personally say Kant, fits my personal views on life. I often try to do the moral thing and behave as I would want others. A lot of time I mentally think “well what if everyone acted this way?” In example I try to use the word hate in front of a person, less. Hate is a very strong word and should not be used to describe a feeling for another person. I believe Kant wouldn’t want hate going around in the word. Instead people should learn to accept differences and work to fix any issues. On the other hand I disagree with his perception outlook. Hume has a method that I agree with more. He states that if x then y. That’s all we can believe in life. We know that there are actions and reactions for everything. People might disagree in example. I scratch my leg, then the phone rings. If I am to believe this series of events to be true, I can learn and adapt next time the phone rings. Example; if a friend wants to talk to me then they call. This theory is constantly flowing. Most people probably take it too literal and forget to acknowledge that it can change.

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